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The town of Cynthiana is located in the northeast part of Smith Township, a rich agricultural district, embracing some of the finest lands of the Black River bottoms. The town was laid out March 6, 1817 by William Davis, who with a colony of about forty persons, emigrated from the vicinity of Cynthiana, Kentucky, from which it is said to have been named, although an authority at hand says it was named in honor of two daughter of Mr. Davis. The town was laid out with an old-fashioned “public square”. The first enlargement made to the town was by Clement Whiting June 5, 1819; this was known as the “Whiting enlargement.”

Pearison Incorporated, one of the largest distributors of band uniforms in the United States, is located in Cynthiana. Band Shoppe and Embroidery Direct, divisions of Pearison, manufacture and distribute to colleges and high schools throughout the U.S.

Cynthiana is located just off of Interstate 64 at exit 18. The town is less than two and a half hours from St. Louis, two hours from Louisville, and three hours from Indianapolis and thirty minutes from the city of Evansville, Indiana. The community is governed by a town board that meets monthly.